An introduction to Scope 1 greenhouse gas emissions

Learn how the greenhouse gas (GHG) protocol defines scope 1 emissions and the requirements an organisation needs to follow when reporting their scope 1 emissions.

How are scope 1 emissions defined in the GHG protocol?

The GHG Protocol recommends organisations identify GHG emissions associated with their operations and categorise them as direct or indirect. Direct emissions are emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the company. Indirect emissions are emissions that are a consequence of the activities of the company but occur at sources owned or controlled by another company. An operational boundary is used to categorise direct and indirect emissions of an organisation.

GHG emissions from sources owned or controlled by the reporting company fall under scope 1. Scope 1 emissions are principally the result of the following types of activities undertaken by a company:

  • Stationary combustion: These emissions result from the combustion of fuels in stationary sources (boilers, furnaces, turbines) to produce electricity and generate steam or heat.
  • Mobile combustion: These emissions result from the combustion of fuels in company owned/controlled mobile combustion sources (e.g., trucks, trains, ships, aeroplanes, buses, and cars)
  • Fugitive emissions: These emissions result from intentional or unintentional releases, e.g., equipment leaks from joints, seals, packing, and gaskets; methane emissions from coal mines and venting; hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions during the use of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; and methane leakages from gas transport.

What are the requirements to be followed when reporting scope 1 GHG emissions?

As per the CSDR adopted by the EU in October 2022, it became mandatory for organisations to report their scope 1, 2 and 3 GHG emissions. When compiling the information for reporting scope 1 GHG emissions, the undertaking must:

  • Consider the principles, requirements and guidance provided by the GHG Protocol Corporate Standard and GRI 305
  • Consistently apply the reporting boundaries defined in ESRS 1 and disclose and explain any exclusions. In case of significant boundary changes, the undertaking shall state those and explain their effect on comparability
  • Use emission factors that include the emissions of all greenhouse gases included in the Kyoto Protocol ( CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6,). The latest Global Warming Potential (GWP) values published by the IPCC should be used to convert the warming effects of non-CO2 gases into CO2 equivalent emissions.
  • Disclose the methodologies and emissions factors used to calculate or measure GHG emissions, providing a reference or link to any calculation tools used

How can Ducky help in all of this?

Through our simple API implementations, you can calculate your organisation's GHG emissions through the IT systems you already use. Our scope 1 GHG reporting endpoint uses state-of-the-art climate data encapsulating the entirety of scope 1 emissions. We only require you to input your inventory data, and our APIs perform the calculations thereafter. We have referred extensively to the GHG Protocol while formulating our GHG reporting endpoints, which means we comply with all mandatory requirements. Ducky provides continuously updated data, offering high precision, swift implementation, guaranteed maintenance and a lower cost than comparable solutions - integrated into your existing systems. Contact us on to get started!


Head over to our guide on company level emissions reporting to read more about this use case.

See also our intro to GHG reporting schemes for more on the GHG protocol.