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Reporting GHG emissions

Compute Scope 1-3 GHG emissions directly from data in your IT systems. This endpoint complies with the GHG Protocol standard and can be used by organisations to fulfil their own GHG reporting requirements or those of their customers.

Many companies now have to report their greenhouse gas emissions to comply with EU regulation. There are many relevant reporting schemes and Ducky has chosen to comply with the leading GHG Protocol standard. Here an organisation’s GHG emissions are classified into three scopes: Scope 1 (direct emissions), Scope 2 (indirect emissions) and Scope 3 (value chain emissions). Our reporting endpoint is created in a manner to ensure compliance with the GHG Protocol.

Scope 1 emissions are direct emissions from company-owned and controlled resources.  They are divided into four categories: stationary combustion (e.g fuels, heating sources), mobile combustion (vehicles owned or operated by the firm), fugitive emissions (GHG gases released from refrigeration, air conditioning units) and process emissions (released during industrial processes, on-site manufacturing)  All fuels that produce GHG emissions must be included in scope 1. To summarise, the emissions from all the fuels used by the organisation are reported under Scope 1.

Scope 2 emissions are indirect emissions from the generation of purchased electricity and heating/cooling, from a utility provider. In other words, all GHG emissions released from the consumption of purchased electricity, steam, heat and cooling

Scope 3 emissions are all indirect emissions - not included in scope 2 - that occur in the value chain of the reporting company, including both upstream and downstream emissions. In other words, emissions are linked to the company's operations. They are separated into 15 categories:

  • Purchased goods and services
  • Capital goods
  • Fuel-and energy-related activities (not included in Scope 1 and Scope 2) 
  • Upstream transportation and distribution
  • Waste generated in operations
  • Business travel
  • Employee commuting
  • Upstream leased assets
  • Downstream transportation and distribution
  • Processing of sold products
  • Use of sold products
  • EOL of sold products
  • Downstream leased assets
  • Franchises
  • Investments

The endpoint has capabilities to calculate emissions for all 3 Scopes and categories (barring a few).


For a particular activity, this endpoint receives:

  • Scope and category
  • Type of activity data
    • Fuel use
    • Money spent on activity
    • Distance travelled
    • Number of units of an item
  • Unit of activity data
  • Value of activity data
  • Fuel type (optional)
  • Vehicle type (optional)
  • Region
  • Mileage of vehicle (optional)


For a particular activity, this endpoint outputs:

  • GHG emissions (in kg CO2e)
  • Emission factor (kg CO2e/unit) 
  • Reporting scope and category

Data sources

A variety of different data sources are used based on the type of activity and scope category. 

  • Fuel Used:
    • Data Source: DEFRA
    • Description: To calculate emissions resulting from the combustion of different fuels, we source emissions data from DEFRA. This dataset includes direct and well-to-tank (WTT) emissions for various fuel types.
  • Distance Travelled:
    • Data Sources: Various Sources
    • Description: To determine emissions from travel, we utilize emissions data for different vehicles obtained from a combination of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies and yearly reports. For detailed information on the data sources for each mode of transport, please refer to the "Convert Transport" section.
  • Energy Consumed:
    • Data Sources: Various Sources
    • Description: To calculate emissions resulting from energy consumption, we source emissions data for different energy carriers from a mixture of reliable sources. For specific data sources related to different energy carriers, please consult the "Convert Energy" section.
  • Fuel Prices:
    • Data Sources:
    • Description: Fuel prices for different types of fuels are obtained from respective sources. Prices for bensin and diesel come from SSB, hydrogen prices from a specific source, biodiesel and biogasoline prices from another specific source, and ethanol prices are based on IEA statistics.
  • Electricity Prices:
    • Data Source: ENSTOE
    • Description: Electricity prices are sourced from ENSTOE. We utilize day-ahead electricity prices to calculate a monthly average price for each price zone and country.
  • Purchased Goods and Services:
    • Description: To estimate emissions from this category, we employ a combination of input-output analysis and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). We rely on LCAs, whenever available, as they provide the most accurate footprint values for specific products. In cases where relevant LCAs are not available, we use CO2e multipliers from input-output analysis along with average pricing data to estimate the carbon footprint of an item.


The general logic follows a similar approach as the convert endpoint, which involves converting data into footprints. The calculations vary slightly depending on the type of activity data and the scope. 

Calculation logic based on the scope

Scope 1 and 2 only include direct emissions from combustion, whereas Scope 3 categories are required to have lifecycle emissions (from cradle to grave).  For example, when calculating emissions for a specific fuel, the Scope 1 emissions would include only the emissions from burning the fuel, whereas the Scope 3 emissions would include the emissions from burning the fuel and additionally, the emissions from extracting and refining the fuel. 

Calculation logic based on the activity data

  • Fuel Use:
    • Description: This calculation method applies when you provide input regarding the quantity of fuel or electricity used.
    • Method: Multiply the quantity of fuel or electricity used (measured in litres/kWh/kg) by the corresponding multiplier of the specific fuel or electricity source.
  • Distance Travelled:
    • Description: This calculation method is used when you input the distance travelled in a specific vehicle.
    • Method: Multiply the distance travelled (measured in kilometers or miles) by the corresponding multiplier of the particular vehicle.
  • Money Spent on Fuel:
    • Description: This calculation method is applicable when you input the amount of money spent on fuel.
    • Method: Convert the money spent on fuel to the quantity of fuel used by utilizing the average fuel price. Multiply the quantity of fuel obtained from the previous step by the corresponding multiplier of the specific fuel type.
  • Number of units of an item:
    • Description: This calculation method is applicable for the Scope 3 Category 1 and 2: Purchase of goods and services, Capital goods.
    • Method: The number of units of an item is multiplied with the footprint of that item.