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All data sources for Ducky Public

See a complete list of data sources and research used in the calculation of footprints in Ducky Public.

Updated: December 16th 2021

Introduction

This document is intended to be a complete list of the data sources used when calculating the footprints in Zero Emission Citizen (https://www.folketsfotavtrykk.eco/). Zero Emission Citizen footprints are found by calculating the footprint of every household in a country using Ducky’s footprint calculator and statistical data on the households.

The data for Duckys calculations are collected and maintained by Ducky applied research group. There are two main types of data. Some of the numbers we use in the footprint calculation do not vary between neighborhoods and municipalities. An example of such a data source is the factor for calculating the emissions factor associated with using electricity. The other data type varies between neighborhoods and municipalities. This data drives the differences that can be seen in the footprint map. Examples of this type of data are house size and primary heat source.

This data source list contains all of the different data sources we use, which means that not all of them are specific to a given municipality. As development on the map progresses, more and more of the data will vary between neighborhoods and municipalities, so that we to an even larger degree can map local variations. Some examples of data that we expect to vary eventually, but are now the same for all municipalities, are: data about diet, flight trips, and commute distance to work.

Zero Emission Citizen is developed by Ducky in collaboration with Asplan Viak and TietoEvry, with the support of the Norwegian Research Council. More information on the tool can be found here.

Source format

The following information fields are provided for each source:


Variable

Name of variable

Category

Food, energy, transport, goods & services or general

Source

The organization that produces the dataset. 

Reference name

Name of dataset as referred to by Ducky in other documentation

URL

Where the dataset may be found on the Internet. If the dataset is not publicly available online, the URL points to the source institution. 

Date accessed 

The date on which the dataset was accessed/downloaded by the Ducky team.

Citation

Formal citation for the dataset, source organization, or other relevant published materials that are helpful in understanding the dataset. 

Description

Brief explanation of how the dataset is used in the calculations


 

Data source list

1. General data sources


Variable

Population

Category

General

Source

Skattedirektoratet

Reference name

National Population Dataset

URL

Tietoevry

Date accessed 

Nov 10, 2021

Citation

Vemund & Perrin (2021) Aggregated population statistics for Norway. TietoEvry & Ducky, Trondheim.

Description

TietoEvry, with assistance from Ducky, produces an aggregated population database through use of Skattedirektoratet data. This gives population numbers throughout Norway on a neighborhood level. For municipalities who have signed a data sharing agreement, this is further broken down into population per household type. These numbers are used as a basis for calculating the footprint of Norwegian households.


 

2. Sources related to food


Variable

Average food consumption per day in Norway

Category

Food

Source

Helsedirektoratet

Reference name

Norkost 3

URL

Norkost 3 

Date accessed 

Jan 19, 2021

Citation

T. Holm Totland et. al. (2011) Norkost 3. Helsedirektoratet, Oslo.

Description

The Norkost report gives a picture of the average Norwegian diet which, along with factors for CO2e emissions per food category, allows Ducky to calculate the food footprint.


Variable

CO2e emissions per kcal of food categories

Category

Food

Source

Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)

Reference name

Stamm & Hertwich (2015)

URL

Click here 

Date accessed 

Feb 12, 2021

Citation

A. Valentine Stamm and E. Hertwich (2015) Carbon Footprint of Diets of Norwegian Households - Status and Potential Reductions (Master’s Thesis). Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.

Description

CO2e emissions per kcal of food is linked to consumption per category to calculate the total food footprint. The thesis includes a literature survey of emissions factors for major food categories. The thesis additionally describes methods of calculating vegetarian and vegan diets which are used in the Ducky calculator.


Variable

Food waste factor

Category

Food

Source

Matvett & Norsus

Reference name

Matsvinn i Norge 

URL

Click here 

Date accessed 

Feb 4, 2021

Citation

A. E. Stensgård et. al. (2020) Matsvinn i Norge - Rapportering Av Nøkkeltall 2015-2019. Matvett & Norsus, Krakeroy.

Description

Based on the reported food waste numbers (reported in kilos of food for different categories), Ducky calculates the additional footprint due to wasted food. We add this to the total food footprint.


Variable

Average food consumption of children in comparison to adults

Category

Food

Source

Public Health England

Reference name

UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey

URL

Click here

Date accessed 

Mar 24, 2020

Citation

Public Health England (2017) Years 1 to 9 of the Rolling Programme (2008/2009 – 2016/2017): Time trend and income analyses (Chapter 8). Public Health England, London.

Description

Description of consumption of food by categories across age groups. This is used to estimate the average consumption of individuals under the age of 18. This is expressed as a percentage of an adult diet, which is then used to find the food footprint for households with children.


 

3. Sources related to transport


Variable

Production of batteries and end-of-life emissions for vehicles

Category

Transport

Source

Environmental Research Letters

Reference name

Ellingsen et al. (2016)

URL

Click here  

Date accessed 

Feb 25, 2021

Citation

Ellingsen, Linda Ager-Wick, Bhawna Singh, and Anders Hammer Strømman. (2016) The size and range effect: lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of electric vehicles. Environmental Research Letters,  11(5): 054010.

Description

Data on the production of batteries and end-of-life emissions for battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles has been extracted from the article. These values are distributed over an average car lifespan of 200 000 km, along with emissions data, to obtain a factor for emissions per km driving which includes complete lifecycle emissions.


Variable

Vehicle production and maintenance emissions

Category

Transport

Source

European Parliament

Reference name

TRAN Committee Report

URL

Click here 

Date accessed 

Apr 6, 2021

Citation

Ellingsen, L., and C. Hung (2018) Research for TRAN Committee-Battery-powered electric vehicles: market development and lifecycle emissions. European Parliament, Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department for Structural and Cohesion Policies, Transport and Tourism 10, European Parliament.

Description

Data on the production of vehicles and maintenance emissions for different vehicle types has been extracted from the report. These values are distributed over an average car lifespan of 200 000 km, along with emissions data, to obtain a factor for emissions per km driving which includes complete lifecycle emissions.


Variable

Fraction of electric vs fuel mode for hybrid vehicles

Category

Transport

Source

Journal of Cleaner Production 

Reference name

Zackrisson et al. (2010)

URL

Click here 

Date accessed 

Nov 30, 2021

Citation

Zackrisson, M., Avellán, L. & Orlenius, J. (2010) Life cycle assessment of lithium-ion batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles–Critical issues. Journal of Cleaner Production 18(15): 1519-1529.

Description

Calculations from this research are used to estimate the fractions of electric vs fuel motor used in a plug-in hybrid vehicle, which again is used to calculate the operation emissions for such vehicles.


Variable

Direct emissions data for Norwegian private vehicle fleet

Category

Transport

Source

Statens Vegvesen

Reference name

National Vehicle Registry

URL

Click here

Date accessed 

May 5, 2021

Citation

Statens Vegvesen (2021) Miljø- og energimerking. Statens Vegvesen, Oslo.

Description

On a neighborhood level, Tieto Evry provides numbers and average emissions for cars within that neighborhood, by way of Statens Vegvesen. The emissions data is for fuel use (direct emissions) only, and is therefore combined with lifecycle and maintenance data from the other sources in the transport section to provide a full picture of emissions per kilometer over the vehicles lifetime.


Variable

Average vehicle use statistics

Category

Transport

Source

SSB

Reference name

National Vehicle Use Datasets

URL

SSB table 12579

SSB table 12576

Date accessed 

Sep 1, 2021

Citation

Statistisk sentralbyå (Updated 23.03.2021) 12579: Kjørelengder, etter eierens bostedskommune (K) 2005 - 2020.

Description

The average distance driven by different vehicle types per county is combined with the average distance driven by any vehicle per municipality to calculate the average distance driven by fuel type by municipality. This is combined with footprint data (direct emissions and production, maintenance and end-of-life emissions) to calculate the transport footprint of driving private cars in a given municipality.


Variable

Public transport use statistics

Category

Transport

Source

Statistics Norway (SSB)

Reference name

National Public Transport Use Datasets

URL

SSB table 10484

SSB table 06670

Date accessed 

Sep 1, 2021

Citation

Statistics Norway (Updated 10.06.2021) 10484:  Passenger transport by rail, by rail line & 06670: Public transport by bus. Intra-county routes(C)

Description

Total number of kilometers traveled by passengers on both local buses and train routes is divided among the inhabitants of the relevant counties to determine per person use of trains and bus by county.


Variable

Average distance traveled for work, leisure and holiday purposes, as well as mode of transport

Category

Transport

Source

Institute of Transport Economics

Reference name

Norwegian National Travel Survey

URL

Click here 

Date accessed 

Apr 6, 2021

Citation

Hjorthol, R., Engebretsen, Ø., & Priya Uteng, T. (2014) Den Nasjonale Reisevaneundersøkelsen, Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.

Description

The average distance traveled by various modes of transport, along with the purpose of travel, is combined with CO2e emissions data to calculate the average Norwegian’s transport footprint. Values from this report are used as default when other data is lacking.


Variable

Emissions factors for public transport and airplanes

Category

Transport

Source

DEFRA - Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy

Reference name

DEFRA GHG factors

URL

Gov.uk - Greenhouse gas reporting conversion factors 2019 

Date accessed 

Mar 26, 2020

Citation

Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (2019) Greenhouse Gas Reporting: Conversion Factors 2019, DEFRA, London

Description

Direct emissions data for flights of different lengths, including average occupancy, as well as public transport such as bus, trains and boats, is taken from this report. These data are combined with indirect emissions data (principle “wells-to-wheels” data for fuel extraction), and, for flights, a radiative forcing factor to obtain the CO2e emissions per passenger kilometer. The transport footprint can then be calculated based on statistical data on the number of flights, bus trips, etc taken on average.


 

4. Sources related to consumption of goods & services


Variable

Spending per category of goods & services

Category

Goods & services

Source

Statistics Norway (SSB)

Reference name

CES 2012

URL

SSB table 10235

Date accessed 

Dec 7, 2021

Citation

Statistics Norway (Updated 17.12.13) 10235: Expenditure per household per year, by commodity and service group

Description

The consumer expenditure survey from SSB supplies average yearly spending per household for 46 basic categories. Spending patterns for 7 different household types, depending on the constellation of occupants, are included. Based on familial income and number of adults and children, Ducky’s calculation places a household in one of the household types, and extrapolates spending patterns according to income. Based on the CO2 emissions associated with each category, we can then calculate the footprint of spending on goods and services.


Variable

Emissions per category for goods & services

Category

Goods & services

Source

Journal of Industrial Ecology

Reference name

Input-output matching with CES

URL

Click here 

Date accessed 

May 3, 2021

Citation

Steen‐Olsen, K., Wood, R. and Hertwich, E. G. (2016) The carbon footprint of Norwegian household consumption 1999–2012. Journal of Industrial Ecology 20(3): 582-592.

Description

The cited paper describes a method by which consumer expenditure survey data is matched with macroeconomic environmentally extended input-output data to obtain emissions factors per category spending of goods & services.


Variable

Income statistics

Category

Goods & services

Source

Tietoevry

Reference name

National Income Statistics

URL

Tietoevry

Date accessed 

Nov 10, 2021

Citation

Vemund & Perrin (2021) Aggregated household and individual income statistics for Norway. TietoEvry & Ducky, Trondheim.

Description

Tietoevry, with assistance from Ducky, produces an aggregated income database which gives deducted income on a neighborhood level. For municipalities who have signed a data sharing agreement, this is given as income per household, and on a household type level (eg. per single individual households), where the total number of that household type is over 5. For municipalities that have not signed a DSA, average income per person over the age of 17 is used in the calculation. 


Variable

Deductible income to gross income conversion factor

Category

Goods & services

Source

Statistics Norway (SSB)

Reference name

Income Type Comparison

URL

SSB table 03068

Date accessed 

Nov 10, 2021

Citation

Statistics Norway (Updated 18th March 2021) 03068: Main entries from the tax assessment for residents 17 years and older, by sex (kr) (K) 1993 - 2019.

Description

Deductible income is converted to gross income using the relationship between the two throughout Norway. Gross income has been found to be a more reliable indicator of household spending power. The income is used to identify spending per category of goods and services, and thereby find the footprint of consumption of goods and services.


 

5. Sources related to energy


Variable

Average electricity use for different dwelling types and household size

Category

Energy

Source

Statistics Norway (SSB)

Reference name

Energy use in households

URL

Click here

Date accessed 

Dec 3, 2021

Citation

Statistics Norway (Update July 14, 2014) Tables 10573: Average energy consumption per household, by house type & 10574: Average energy consumption per household, by household size

Description

Energy usage households by house type is used to calculate a factor for energy use per square meter. We can use this factor to estimate the yearly energy usage for a given dwelling size and type. Energy consumption by household size is used to calculate a factor to adjust the overall average energy use according to the number of people living in the house. This is the starting point for finding the energy footprint


Variable

Living area statistics

Category

Energy

Source

Matrikkelen

Reference name

National living area database

URL

Tietoevry

Date accessed 

Nov 10, 2021

Citation

Vemund & Perrin (2021) Aggregated living area statistics for Norway. TietoEvry & Ducky.

Description

TietoEvry, with assistance from Ducky, produces an aggregated living area database on a neighbourhood level. This gives living area in square metres per household using data provided by Matrikkelen. For municipalities who have signed a Data Sharing Agreement, this is further divided into household types (eg. per single individual household), only when the total number of that household type is over 5.


Variable

People per household

Category

Energy

Source

Folkeregisteret

Reference name

National household database

URL

Tietoevry

Date accessed 

Nov 10, 2021

Citation

Vemund & Perrin (2021) Aggregated living area statistics for Norway. TietoEvry & Ducky.

Description

TietoEvry, with assistance from Ducky, connects people living in a given neighborhood to households, giving an estimate of people per household for that neighborhood. For municipalities who have signed a Data Sharing Agreement, this is further divided into household types (eg. number of people living as a couple with one child).


Variable

Breakdown of energy use by end use

Category

Energy

Source

The Norwegian Energy Regulatory Authority 

Reference name

NVE Energy use in buildings

URL

Click here 

Date accessed 

Dec 3, 2021

Citation

“Energibruk i bygg.” NVE, 17 Sept 2019

Description

The Norwegian Energy Regulatory Authority gives a breakdown of energy use in households in the categories heating, lighting, hot water and electrical appliances as percentages of the total energy use. We use these percentages to estimate the energy use per category, based on a total energy use. This is then used to calculate the energy footprint.


Variable

Emissions factor for district heating in Norway

Category

Energy

Source

Asplan Viak

Reference name

District heating factors

URL

Asplan Viak 

Date accessed 

Mar 12, 2021

Citation

Email correspondence with Kristine Bjordal from Asplan Viak

Description

Asplan Viak has performed a survey of the sources of district heating in Norway, and has used this to calculate a CO2 emissions factor for this energy source. We use this to calculate the energy footprint, based on data about district heating use.


Variable

Emissions factor of burning wood 

Category

Energy

Source

Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)

Reference name

Arvesen et al. (2018)

URL

Nature - article 

Date accessed 

April 4, 2020 

Citation

Arvesen, Anders, et al. "Cooling aerosols and changes in albedo counteract warming from CO 2 and black carbon from forest bioenergy in Norway." Scientific reports 8.1 (2018): 1-13.

Description

This study looks into the footprint of burning Norwegian wood in Norwegian homes, taking into consideration the different types of trees typically used, efficiency of wood stoves and secondary greenhouse forcing factors such as albedo change and black carbon. We use their average numbers to estimate the footprint of burning wood to heat your home.


Variable

Efficiency of heat pumps

Category

Energy

Source

Enova

Reference name

Enova: Varmepumper

URL

Enova - varmepumper 

Date accessed 

Dec 7, 2021

Citation

 

Description

Enova provides data on the efficiency of heat pumps. This allows Ducky to calculate the relative energy savings for homes that have heat pumps installed.